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This study examined the incidence of symptomatic gallstone disease in a cohort of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians, and investigated the associations between nutrient intake and risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. The linked databases of hospital records were used to identify incident cases. Risk by diet group was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Further analysis quantified risk by intakes of selected macronutrients. There was a large significant association between increasing body mass index BMI and risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease overall trend Pvegetarians had a moderately increased risk compared with non-vegetarians HR: 1.

There is a highly significant association of increased BMI with risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. After adjusting for BMI, there is a small but statistically significant positive association between vegetarian diet and symptomatic gallstone disease. Association between thyroid function and gallstone disease. METHODS: A study population of 3 residents aged years without previously diagnosed thyroid disease was available for analyses.

Serum TSH was used to assess thyroid function.


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Cholelithiasis was defined by either a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of gallstones on ultrasound. Logistic regression was performed to analyze independent associations between thyroid function and cholelithiasis. The proportion of cholelithiasis among males and females was In the female population, no such relation was identified. Gallstone disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus-the link.

To determine the factors predisposing patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. One hundred type 2 diabetic patients and age and gender-matched controls underwent real time ultrasonography to study factors predisposing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. The age, gender, body mass index BMI , duration of diabetes mellitus and serum lipids were determined in the individuals enrolled for the study. There was a steady increase in the incidence of gallstone disease in diabetic patients with age with a peak incidence in the seventh decade i.

The average age of the diabetic patients with gallstone disease - The mean duration of disease in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 5. The mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels - 4. The mean body mass index for the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was Increasing age is a risk factor for gallstone disease in diabetic patients. Hyperlipidaemia, female gender, heavier weight and a longer duration of diabetes mellitus appear to be associated risk factors.

Gallstone disease GSD is a major global health problem that causes high Lifestyle and gallstone disease : Scope for primary prevention. Full Text Available Objective : To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables.

Prepubertal age group was least afflicted 3. Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates.

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However, only three of these, viz. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention. Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease , one of the commonest digestive diseases in western countries, is induced by an imbalance in cholesterol metabolism, which involves intestinal absorption, hepatic biosynthesis, and biliary output of cholesterol, and its conversion to bile acids.

Several components of the metabolic syndrome e. Cholesterol gallstones may be enhanced, at least in part, by the abnormal expression of a set of the genes that affect cholesterol homeostasis and lead to insulin resistance. In this review, we will comment on various steps of the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones and interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The epigenomic approach may offer new options for therapy of gallstones and better possibilities for primary prevention in subjects at risk. Breast cancer had a weak association with gallstone disease depending on other factors Right-side colon cancer was also associated with gallstone disease 2.

Pancreatic, esophageal, gastric, pooled colorectal, left-side colon Conclusions: Screen-detected gallstone disease in the general population is associated with pooled gastrointestinal and right-side colon cancers.

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These associations are not due to detection bias or cholecystectomy. Further studies Microbiology of bile in symptomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease. To determine the microbiology of the bile culture and antimicrobial susceptibility in patients with symptomatic gallstone disease in our setup. Study Design: A descriptive study. Patients and Methods: A total of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to symptomatic gallstones and their bile was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and culture sensitivity was performed.

Data was analysed by using statistical package for social sciences SPSS version Results: Bile culture was negative in 81 patients Cefoperazone with sulbactum and Amikacin were the most effective prophylactic antibiotics. Conclusion: Bile in majority of patients with symtomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease is sterile. Vitamin D and gallstone disease -A population-based study.

D'Abrantès, Laure Junot,‏ duchesse

Determinants of vitamin D status were also explored. Ultrasound examinations were performed to assess gallstone status and blood samples were drawn Gallstone disease was found in participants. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models. Levels of hydroxyvitamin D was not significantly associated with gallstone disease. Time of birth during low vitamin D Findings suggest gallstones to be associated to low vitamin D exposure in utero and to renal failure suggesting that vitamin D might have an impact on gallstone disease.

Future studies should explore associations for vitamin D and gallstone disease prospectively In individuals without blockage of their bile ducts, levels of plasma bilirubin likely reflect levels of biliary bilirubin; higher biliary bilirubin levels may increase the risk of gallstone disease Development of a duodenal gallstone ileus with gastric outlet obstruction Bouveret syndrome four months after successful treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease with cholecystitis and cholangitis: a case report. The majority of obstructing gallstones are located in the terminal ileum.

A gastric outlet obstruction secondary to a gallstone ileus is known as Bouveret syndrome. Gallstones usually enter the bowel through a biliary enteral fistula. Little is known about the formation of such fistulae in the course of gallstone disease. Case presentation We report the case of a year-old Caucasian woman born in Germany with a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone ileus Bouveret syndrome, with a large gallstone impacted in the third part of the duodenum.

Diagnostic investigations of our patient included plain abdominal films, gastroscopy and abdominal computed tomography, which showed a biliary enteric fistula between the gallbladder and the duodenal bulb. Our patient was successfully treated by laparotomy, duodenotomy, extraction of the stone, cholecystectomy, and resection of the fistula in a one-stage surgical approach.


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  • Histopathological examination showed chronic and acute cholecystitis, with perforated ulceration of the duodenal wall and acute purulent inflammation of the surrounding fatty tissue. Four months prior to developing a gallstone ileus our patient had been hospitalized for cholecystitis, a large gallstone in the gallbladder, cholangitis and a small obstructing gallstone in the common biliary duct. She had been treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, balloon extraction of the common biliary duct gallstone , and intravenous antibiotics.

    At the time of her first presentation, abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic examination including esophagogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography had not shown any evidence of a biliary enteral fistula. In the four months preceding the. New strategies for the treatment of gallstone disease. Background: Symptomatic gallstones are generally accepted as being the indication for cholecystectomy. Generally, severe abdominal pain in epigastrium and in the right upper abdominal quadrant, and lasting for more than 15 min, is thought to be caused by gallstones.

    However, many patients with other. A large Danish study has shown that high bilirubin plasma levels and the genetic variant rs TT of the enzyme bilirubin glucuronidase UGT1A1 are associated with an increased risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease. Recent reports regarding the significant association between bilirubin levels and symptomatic gallstone disease open a new chapter about the indication and exclusion criteria for oral dissolution therapy of symptomatic gallstone disease. This is probably related to the persistence of other causal risk factors for gallstones in addition to that of cholesterol suprasaturation.

    A subgroup of patients with high plasma bilirubin levels and the UGT1A1 genetic variant rs have a greater risk of recurrence. In conclusion, oral dissolution therapy with UDCA might still be appropriate for patients that refuse laparoscopic cholecystectomy provided they have small gallstones and a functioning gallbladder, and have mean plasma bilirubin levels below 1.

    Conclusion: Circulating RBP4 decreases in cholesterol gallstone disease independent of renal function.

    Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between liver function and RBP4 levels in these patients. Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of gallstone disease. Epidemiologic evidence on coffee consumption reducing the risk of gallstone disease has been contradictory. To perform a meta-analysis of observational studies, to investigate an association and dose-response of coffee consumption with gallstone disease.

    One case-control study and five prospective cohort studies with seven cohorts involving , participants and 11, gallstone disease cases were included.

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    Coffee consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of gallstone disease RR, 0. The case-control study did not reveal any association between coffee and gallstone disease OR, 0. In a dose-response analysis, the RR of gallstone disease was 0.